Ditzels

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Tonsils (at cut-up) are a common ditzel. (WC/Katotomichelakis et al.)

This article collects ditzels, which are, in the context of pathology, little specimens that are typically one or two slides and usually of little interest.[1]

The challenge in ditzels is not falling asleep... so one misses the unexpected (subtle) tumour.

Contents

The big table of ditzels

Specimen Typical context (diagnosis) System
Hernia sac hernia Gastrointestinal pathology
Stoma (reversal) bowel obstruction, perforated viscus (peritonitis) Gastrointestinal pathology
Sleeve gastrectomy obesity Gastrointestinal pathology
Vertebral disc herniated disc Neuropathology
Bands of Ladd bands of Ladd Paediatric pathology
Cholesteatoma cholesteatoma Paediatric pathology
Femoral head hip fracture, hip OA Orthopaedic
Bone reamings hip fracture Orthopaedic
Tonsil tonsillitis Head and neck pathology
Leg amputation atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease, trauma Cardiovascular pathology
Lipoma lipoma Soft tissue pathology
Heterotopic ossification contractures Soft tissue pathology
Uterine tubes (tubal ligation) completed family Gynecologic pathology
Pressure ulcer (AKA decubitus ulcer) ulcer, immobility Dermatopathology
Vas deferens (vasectomy) completed family Genitourinary pathology
Uvula obstructive sleep apnea Head and neck pathology
Stapes otosclerosis Head and neck pathology
Abdominal pannus obesity Dermatopathology (?)
Abdominal fat query amyloidosis Haematopathology (?)
Breast prosthesis breast cancer/cosmesis Breast pathology
Empyema peel decortication for pneumonia Pulmonary pathology
Bursa bursitis Orthopaedic
Gastric band obesity Gastrointestinal pathology

Gastrointestinal pathology

Hernia sac

Inguinal hernia redirects here.

General

  • Hernia repair (herniorrhaphy).
  • Pathologic findings are very unusual and if present known to the surgeon.
    • Thus, it has been advocated that one ought not examine 'em.[2][3]

Microscopic

Features:

  • Fibrous tissue.
  • +/-Adipose tissue.
  • +/-Mesothelial cells.

Notes:

  • One should not see vas deferens.
  • Things worthy of some comment: granulation tissue, inflammation.

Sign out

Incarcerated without mesothelium

SOFT TISSUE ("HERNIA SAC"), RESECTION/HERNIA REPAIR: 
- FIBROADIPOSE TISSUE WITH FAT NECROSIS -- CONSISTENT WITH HERNIA SAC. 
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.
Micro

The sections show fibrofatty tissue with hemosiderin-laden macrophages, plump activated fibroblasts with pale staining nuclei, histiocytes with small nuclei and abundant grey vacuolated cytoplasm, fat necrosis and focal necrosis of the fibrous tissue.

Mesothelial lining present

Submitted as "Hernia Sac", Excision:
- Benign fibroadipose tissue partially covered by mesothelium, consistent 
  with hernia sac.
- NEGATIVE for malignancy.
Block letters
SOFT TISSUE ("HERNIA SAC"), RESECTION/HERNIA REPAIR: 
- FIBROADIPOSE TISSUE PARTIALLY COVERED BY MESOTHELIUM -- CONSISTENT WITH HERNIA SAC. 
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.
Inflamed
SOFT TISSUE ("HERNIA SAC"), LEFT, RESECTION/HERNIA REPAIR:
- FIBROADIPOSE TISSUE PARTIALLY COVERED BY MESOTHELIUM WITH FOCAL CHRONIC
  INFLAMMATION AND REACTIVE CHANGES -- CONSISTENT WITH HERNIA SAC.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.
Gross only
SOFT TISSUE, RIGHT INGUINAL, HERNIA REPAIR:
- HERNIA SAC (GROSS ONLY).
SOFT TISSUE, LEFT INGUINAL, HERNIA REPAIR:
- HERNIA SAC (GROSS ONLY).

Stoma

Ostomy, ileostomy and colostomy redirect here.

General

See: Colon and Small intestine.
  • Reversal of ileostomy or colostomy.
    • The (generic) encompassing term for ileostomy and colostomy is ostomy.[4]

Stomas are created for a number of reasons:

Microscopic

Features:

  • Colonic-type or small intestinal-type bowel wall.
    • Lymphoid hyperplasia (abundant lymphocytes) - very common.
    • +/-Fibromuscular hyperplasia of the lamina propria and submucosa.
  • Skin.

Notes:

DDx:

Sign out

Colostomy

COLOSTOMY, COLOSTOMY REVERSAL:
- LARGE BOWEL WALL WITH SUBMUCOSAL FIBROSIS -- OTHERWISE WITHIN NORMAL LIMITS.
- SKIN WITHOUT SIGNIFICANT PATHOLOGY.
- NEGATIVE FOR DYSPLASIA AND NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.

Ileostomy

Submitted as "Ileostomy", Excision:
- Small bowel with submucosal fibrosis, otherwise within normal limits.
- Skin without significant pathology.
- NEGATIVE for dysplasia and NEGATIVE for malignancy.
Alternate
Submitted As "Ileostomy", Excision:
     - Consistent with ileostomy (small bowel, skin) without significant pathology.
     - NEGATIVE for dysplasia and NEGATIVE for malignancy.
Block letters
ILEOSTOMY, ILEOSTOMY REVERSAL:
- SMALL BOWEL WALL WITH SUBMUCOSAL FIBROSIS -- OTHERWISE WITHIN NORMAL LIMITS.
- SKIN WITHOUT SIGNIFICANT PATHOLOGY.
- NEGATIVE FOR DYSPLASIA AND NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.

Vagus nerve

General

  • Seen from vagotomy.

Typical indication:

  • Gastric outlet obstruction.[5]

Notes:

  • Left vagus nerve -> anterior vagal trunk.
  • Right vagus nerve -> posterior vagal trunk.

Microscopic

Features:

  • Peripheral nerve.

DDx:

  • Smooth muscle.

IHC

  • S-100 +ve.
  • Desmin -ve.

Sign out

A. VAGUS NERVE, POSTERIOR, VAGOTOMY:
- PERIPHERAL NERVE WITHIN NORMAL LIMITS.

B. VAGUS NERVE, ANTERIOR, VAGOTOMY:
- SMOOTH MUSCLE WITHIN NORMAL LIMITS.
- PERIPHERAL NERVE NOT IDENTIFIED, SEE COMMENT.

COMMENT:
The tissue was stained with desmin and S-100; it is positive for desmin. S-100 marks only 
small nerves fibres that innervate the muscle.

Pediatric

Bands of Ladd

General

Microscopic

Features:

  • Benign fibrous tissue.

Sign out

Adhesive band, Ladd's procedure:
- Vascular fibrous tissue consistent with bands of Ladd.

Cholesteatoma

Genitourinary pathology

Foreskin

General

Indications:

Main considerations:

Microscopic

Features:

  • Usu. fibrotic dermis.
  • +/-Inflammation.

DDx:

Sign out

Foreskin, Circumcision: 
- Benign squamous mucosa within normal limits, consistent with foreskin. 
Foreskin, Circumcision: 
- Squamous mucosa with mild-to-moderate acute and chronic 
  (lymphocytic) lichenoid inflammation. 
- NEGATIVE for evidence of lichen sclerosus. 
- NEGATIVE for dysplasia and NEGATIVE for malignancy. 

Comment: 
A PASD stain is NEGATIVE for micro-organisms. 

Paraurethral cyst

Labia

General

  • Operation labioplasty.

Microscopic

Features:

  • Squamous epithelium with compact keratin.
  • Fibrous stroma.

Sign out

LABIA MINORA, RIGHT, LABIOPLASTY:
- BENIGN SKIN WITH A THIN LAYER OF COMPACT KERATIN FIBROTIC STROMA -- CONSISTENT
  WITH LABIA MINORA.

Head and neck pathology

Tonsillitis

Obstructive sleep apnea

Uvula redirects here.
  • Abbreviated OSA.

General

  • Clinical diagnosis.
  • May be treated with a resection of the uvula.[7]
  • Associated with obesity.[8]

Microscopic

Features:

  • Benign oropharyneal mucosa (stratified squamous epithelium).
  • +/-Skeletal muscle.
  • +/-Salivary glands (minor) - mucinous.

Sign out

UVULA, RESECTION:
- OROPHARYNGEAL MUCOSA, CONSISTENT WITH UVULA.

Cardiovascular pathology

Vascular thrombus

Leg amputation

Toe amputation

General - overview

  • Like leg ampuations.

Sign out

See Ditzels#Atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease.

Finger amputation

General - overview

May be done due to:

  • Contractures leading to ulcerations.
  • Scleroderma - leading to ischemia.[9]

Sign out

See Ditzels#Atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease.

Atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease

Diabetic foot redirects here.
  • AKA peripheral vascular disease.

General

Gross

  • +/-Ulceration.
  • +/-Gangrene - black skin - subclassified:
    • "Wet" = moist/oozing fluid.
    • "Dry" = shriveled, no moisture apparent.
  • +/-Loss of hair.

DDx - gross:

Image:

Sections - grossing:

  • Resection margin (check for viability).
  • Gangrenous area.
  • Blood vessels.
  • Bone (check for osteomyelitis).

Microscopic

Features:

Note:

  • Ischemia may be associated with marked nuclear changes. Uninitiated eyes may think they are seeing a sarcoma.

DDx:

Sign out

Forefoot amputation

RIGHT FOREFOOT, AMPUTATION:
- ULCERATED SKIN. 
- MODERATE-TO-SEVERE ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
- BLOOD VESSEL WITH RECANALIZATION.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY. 

Leg amputation

LEFT LEG, BELOW KNEE AMPUTATION:
- MODERATE-TO-SEVERE ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
- COAGULATIVE NECROSIS OF SOFT TISSUE.
- NECROTIC BONE.
- MARROW CAVITY FIBROSIS WITH SIDEROPHAGES.
- RESECTION MARGIN WITH VIABLE TISSUE.
Revision
SKIN AND SOFT TISSUE, RIGHT UPPER LEG, REVISION OF AMPUTATION:
- ULCERATED SKIN WITH NECROTIC SOFT TISSUE WITH IMPETIGINIZATION, AND MICROABSCESS
  FORMATION.
- SEVERE ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.
Leg amputation - gross only
LOWER EXTREMITY, LEFT, BELOW THE KNEE AMPUTATION:
- ULCERS AND ISCHEMIC CHANGES WITH FOCAL COMPLETE ARTERIAL OCCLUSION (GROSS ONLY).
LEG, RIGHT, ABOVE THE KNEE AMPUTATION:
- ULCERS AND ISCHEMIC CHANGES WITH EXTENSIVE ARTERIAL DISEASE (GROSS ONLY).
LEG, RIGHT, ABOVE THE KNEE AMPUTATION:
- EXTENSIVE ISCHEMIC CHANGES WITH SEVERE ARTERIAL DISEASE (GROSS ONLY).

Toe amputation

Mild
THIRD TOE, RIGHT, AMPUTATION:
- SKIN WITH MARKED DERMAL FIBROSIS.
- MILD ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.
SECOND TOE, RIGHT, AMPUTATION:
- SKIN WITH MARKED DERMAL FIBROSIS AND ULCERATION WITH IMPETIGINIZATION.
- MILD ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.
Moderate
SECOND TOE, LEFT, AMPUTATION:
- MODERATE ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
- BONE WITH A FATTY BONE MARROW CAVITY WITH FOCAL FAT NECROSIS AND RARE PLASMA CELLS.
- SKIN WITH FIBROUS DERMIS AND A NON-SPECIFIC DERMAL PERIVASCULAR LYMPHOPLASMACYTIC 
INFILTRATE.
SECOND TOE, LEFT, AMPUTATION:
- MODERATE ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
- BONE WITH A FATTY BONE MARROW CAVITY WITH FOCAL FAT NECROSIS AND RARE PLASMA CELLS.
- SKIN WITH FIBROUS DERMIS AND NON-SPECIFIC PERIVASCULAR LYMPHOPLASMACYTIC DERMAL INFILTRATE.
Severe
SECOND AND THIRD TOE, LEFT, AMPUTATION:
- SEVERE ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
- ACUTE AND CHRONIC OSTEOMYELITIS.
- GANGRENE.
GREAT TOE, LEFT, AMPUTATION:
- GANGRENE.
- SEVERE ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
- ULCERATED SKIN AND CHRONIC ISCHEMIC CHANGES.
- BONE WITH NO SIGNIFICANT PATHOLOGY.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.
GREAT TOE, RIGHT, AMPUTATION:
- GANGRENE.
- ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
- NECROTIC BONE WITH ABUNDANT COCCI ORGANISMS AND NEUTROPHILS 
  WITHIN THE MARROW CAVITY.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.

Orthopaedic

Femoral head

Bone reamings

General

  • Taken during the surgical repair of a fracture, e.g. intramedullary nail placement.
  • Done to rule-out a pathologic fracture; considered reliable for detecting malignancy.[11]
    • Hassan et al.[12] advocate against their use, suggesting the yield is low and a biopsy should be preferred.

Microscopic

Features:[13]

  • Fragments of bone (scattered trabeculae).
    • Necrotic bone = bone with empty lacunae, i.e. lacunae missing osteocytes.
  • Bone marrow.
    • Megakaryocytes - large cells, multinucleated, eosinophilic cytoplasm.
    • Nucleated RBCs - perfectly round, dense nucleus, bright red cytoplasm.
    • Myeloid cells and precursors.
    • Adipocytes.

DDx:

Sign out

BONE, LEFT FEMUR, REAMINGS:
- FEATURES CONSISTENT WITH A RECENT FRACTURE.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.

Heterotopic ossification

  • Abbreviated HO.

Lumbar bone

General

  • May be seen in the context of laminectomies to treat cauda equina syndrome.

Microscopic

Features:

  • Degenerative fibrocartilage:
    • Multiple chondrocytes in one pocket (lacuna) - regenerative change.
    • Degenerative cartilage.
  • Non-vital bone:
    • Empty lacuna.

DDx:

  • Occult malignancy.

Sign out

LUMBAR BONE, DECOMPRESSION:
- BONE AND VERTEBRAL DISC FRAGMENTS WITH DEGENERATIVE CHANGES.
- UNREMARKABLE BONE MARROW.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.

Bursa

Bursitis redirects here.

General

  • Uncommon specimen.
  • Septic bursitis is usually due to S. aureus.[14]
    • Usually associated with trauma to the overlying skin.[15]

Indication:

  • Bursitis - may be treated with bursectomy.[16]

Note:

  • Most bursitis is managed conservatively.[17]

Microscopic

Features:

  • Dense connective tissue.
  • Fibroadipose tissue.

Sign out

No apparent inflammation

BURSA, RIGHT HIP, BURSECTOMY:
- BENIGN DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE WITH CALCIFICATIONS, AND FIBROADIPOSE TISSUE.
- NO SIGNIFICANT INFLAMMATION.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.
BURSA, LEFT TROCHANTERIC, BURSECTOMY:
- BENIGN DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE AND BENIGN FIBROADIPOSE TISSUE.
- NO SIGNIFICANT INFLAMMATION.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.

Rotator cuff tear

General

Microscopic

Features:[18]

  • Collagen degeneration.
  • Disordered arrangement of collagen fibres.
    • Wavy fibres.
    • Separation of the fibres.
  • +/-Inflammation - associated with smaller tears.
  • +/-Decreased cellularity - associated with larger tears.
  • +/-Fatty replacement.[19]

Sign out

RIGHT SHOULDER ACROMIOM AND BURSAE, EXCISION:
- UNREMARKABLE BONE (GROSS ONLY).
- BENIGN SOFT TISSUE.
"BURSA AND ACROMION", LEFT SHOULDER, ROTATOR CUFF REPAIR:
- BENIGN DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE AND BENIGN FIBROADIPOSE TISSUE.
- NO SIGNIFICANT INFLAMMATION.
- NO BONE IDENTIFIED.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.
"BURSA AND ACROMION", LEFT SHOULDER, ROTATOR CUFF REPAIR:
- BENIGN DENSE WAVY CONNECTIVE TISSUE WITH FIBRE SEPARATION.
- BENIGN FIBROADIPOSE TISSUE.
- NO SIGNIFICANT INFLAMMATION.
- NO BONE IDENTIFIED.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.

Other

Breast prosthesis

  • AKA breast implants.

De Quervain syndrome

Should not be confused with De Quervain's thyroiditis (subacute granulomatous thryoiditis).
  • AKA de Quervain tenosynovitis,[20] and de Quervain disease.

General

Clinical:

  • Pain.

Treatment:[21]

  • Steroid.
  • Surgery.

Microscopic

Features:

  • Dense connective tissue consistent with tendon.

Sign out

Not apparent

FIRST EXTENSOR COMPARTMENT, RIGHT HAND, BIOPSY:
- DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE CONSISTENT WITH TENDON.
- FIBROUS TISSUE.

Tenosynovitis

Otosclerosis

Stapes redirects here.

General

  • Clinical diagnosis.
  • Causes conductive hearing loss.[22]
  • Etiology - genetic.
    • Over half a dozen genes have been identified.[23][24]
    • Classically described as autosomal dominant.

Treatment:

  • Stapedectomy (removal of the stapes).[25]

Microscopic

Features (temporal bone):[26]

  • Classically divided into four phases:
    1. Osteoclastic phase:
      • Large spaces form in bone marrow.
    2. Replacement phase:
      • Bone replaced by basophilic web-like tissue.
    3. Fibril phase:
      • Fibrils deposited.
    4. Lamellar phase:

Features - (stapes):

DDx:

Note:

  • Avascular necrosis of the stapes crura and otosclerosis together is considered rare.[27]

Images:

Sign out

STAPES, RIGHT, STAPEDECTOMY:
- BENIGN BONE CONSISTENT WITH STAPES.
STAPES, RIGHT, STAPEDECTOMY:
- UNREMARKABLE BONE CONSISTENT WITH STAPES.

Missed stapes

STAPES, RIGHT, STAPEDECTOMY:
- BENIGN FIBROFATTY TISSUE.
- NO BONE IDENTIFIED.

External links

Abdominal pannus

  • AKA pannus, panniculus and pannona.

Empyema

Empyema peel and pleural peel redirect here.

General

  • Empyemas are often managed surgically.[28]
  • Classically, divided into three stages.[29][30]
    • I - exudative stage (acute).
    • II - fibropurulent stage (acute).
    • III - organizational stage (chronic).

Etiologies - common:

Microscopic

Features:

  • Neutrophils (pus) - key feature.
  • Lymphocytes.
  • Plasma cells.
  • Reactive fibroblasts.
  • Reactive mesothelial cells - not common.

DDx:

Sign out

A. Right Pleural, Pleural Peel:
     - Proliferative fibroblasts with marked reactive changes.
     - Necro-inflammatory debris.
     - NEGATIVE for evidence of malignancy.

B. Right Lung, Biopsy:
     - Necro-inflammatory debris and reactive pleural changes.
     - Infarcted lung parenchyma.
     - NEGATIVE for evidence of malignancy.

Block letters

PLEURA, LEFT, DECORTICATION:
- MIXED INFLAMMATORY INFILTRATE WITH ABUNDANT NEUTROPHILS.
- REACTIVE FIBROBLASTS AND FIBRIN.
- NO MICROORGANISMS APPARENT WITH H&E STAINING.
- NEGATIVE FOR MALIGNANCY.

Not labelled as a peel

Left Lung, Biopsy:
- Fibrin, neutrophils, necrotic tissue and a fibroblastic 
  response, compatible with empyema peel.
- NO viable lung parenchyma identified.
- NEGATIVE for evidence of malignancy.

Toenail

General

  • Relatively common.

Indications for removal:

  • Ingrown[31] - typically great toe.[32]
  • Onychomycosis - fungal infection.[33]
  • Pigmented lesion.
    • Exclude melanoma.[34]

Microscopic

Features:

  • Nail plate - paucicellular, dense connective tissue.
  • Keratinized squamous epithelium.
  • +/-Cocci organisms.

DDx:

Stains

For pigmented lesion:

Query fungal infection:

Sign out

Pigmented nail

PARTIAL NAIL PLATE, RIGHT THIRD TOE, SCISSOR EXCISION:
- NAIL PLATE AND THIN LAYER OF KERATINIZED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM WITH
  PARAKERATOSIS AND FIBRIN.
- NO APPARENT PIGMENT.
- NO EVIDENCE OF MALIGNANCY.
Micro

The sections show a paucicellular nail plate, and a thin layer of squamous epithelium with keratinization and partial retention of the nuclei (parakeratosis). There is also a small amount of fibrin. No pigmentation is apparent with Prussian blue and Fontana-Masson staining. No melanocytes are apparent. No nuclear atypia is apparent. No mitotic activity is identified. No microorganisms are apparent. No significant inflammation is apparent.

Query infection

GREAT TOENAIL, RIGHT, EXCISION:
- NAIL PLATE AND THIN LAYER OF KERATINIZED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM.
- SMALL CLUSTERS OF COCCI, FOCAL.
- NO APPARENT FUNGAL ORGANISMS WITH PASF STAIN.
- NO EVIDENCE OF MALIGNANCY.

Fungal organisms present

GREAT TOE NAIL, RIGHT, REMOVAL:
- NAIL PLATE AND THIN LAYER OF KERATINIZED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM WITH
  PARAKERATOSIS AND SCANT SUBEPITHELIAL TISSUE.
- FUNGAL ORGANISMS CONSISTENT WITH CANDIDA, DEMONSTRATED WITH PASF STAIN.
- SMALL CLUSTERS OF COCCI, FOCAL.
- NO EVIDENCE OF MALIGNANCY.

See also

References

  1. Weedman Molavi, Diana (2008). The Practice of Surgical Pathology: A Beginner's Guide to the Diagnostic Process (1st ed.). Springer. pp. 37. ISBN 978-0387744858.
  2. Siddiqui K, Nazir Z, Ali SS, Pervaiz S (February 2004). "Is routine histological evaluation of pediatric hernial sac necessary?". Pediatr. Surg. Int. 20 (2): 133–5. doi:10.1007/s00383-003-1106-2. PMID 14986035.
  3. Partrick DA, Bensard DD, Karrer FM, Ruyle SZ (July 1998). "Is routine pathological evaluation of pediatric hernia sacs justified?". J. Pediatr. Surg. 33 (7): 1090–2; discussion 1093–4. PMID 9694100.
  4. URL: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ostomy.html. Accessed on: 27 January 2013.
  5. Okawada, M.; Okazaki, T.; Takahashi, T.; Lane, GJ.; Yamataka, A. (2009). "Gastric outlet obstruction possibly secondary to ulceration in a 2-year-old girl: a case report.". Cases J 2 (1): 8. doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-8. PMID 19123936.
  6. Raphaeli, T.; Parimi, C.; Mattix, K.; Javid, PJ. (Mar 2010). "Acute colonic obstruction from Ladd bands: a unique complication from intestinal malrotation.". J Pediatr Surg 45 (3): 630-1. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2009.12.026. PMID 20223332.
  7. Shin, SH.; Ye, MK.; Kim, CG. (Jun 2009). "Modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome: resection of the musculus uvulae.". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 140 (6): 924-9. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2009.01.020. PMID 19467416.
  8. Sarkhosh, K.; Switzer, NJ.; El-Hadi, M.; Birch, DW.; Shi, X.; Karmali, S. (Jan 2013). "The Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review.". Obes Surg. doi:10.1007/s11695-012-0862-2. PMID 23299507.
  9. Jones, NF.; Imbriglia, JE.; Steen, VD.; Medsger, TA. (May 1987). "Surgery for scleroderma of the hand.". J Hand Surg Am 12 (3): 391-400. PMID 3584887.
  10. Dhawan, SS.; Wang, BW. (Feb 2007). "Four-extremity gangrene associated with crack cocaine abuse.". Ann Emerg Med 49 (2): 186-9. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2006.08.001. PMID 17059855.
  11. Clarke, AM.; Rogers, S.; Douglas, DL. (Dec 1993). "Closed intramedullary biopsy for metastatic disease.". J R Coll Surg Edinb 38 (6): 368-9. PMID 7509409.
  12. Hassan, K.; Kalra, S.; Moran, C. (Aug 2007). "Intramedullary reamings for the histological diagnosis of suspected pathological fractures.". Surgeon 5 (4): 202-4. PMID 17849954.
  13. Tydings, JD.; Martino, LJ.; Kircher, M.; Alfred, RH.; Lozman, J. (Mar 1987). "Viability of intramedullary canal bone reamings for continued calcification.". Am J Surg 153 (3): 306-9. PMID 3548454.
  14. Hanrahan, JA. (Oct 2013). "Recent developments in septic bursitis.". Curr Infect Dis Rep 15 (5): 421-5. doi:10.1007/s11908-013-0353-1. PMID 23933823.
  15. Canoso, JJ.; Sheckman, PR.. "Septic subcutaneous bursitis. Report of sixteen cases.". J Rheumatol 6 (1): 96-102. PMID 439118.
  16. Dillon, JP.; Freedman, I.; Tan, JS.; Mitchell, D.; English, S. (Jul 2012). "Endoscopic bursectomy for the treatment of septic pre-patellar bursitis: a case series.". Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 132 (7): 921-5. doi:10.1007/s00402-012-1494-7. PMID 22426936.
  17. Lustenberger, DP.; Ng, VY.; Best, TM.; Ellis, TJ. (Sep 2011). "Efficacy of treatment of trochanteric bursitis: a systematic review.". Clin J Sport Med 21 (5): 447-53. doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e318221299c. PMID 21814140.
  18. Longo, UG.; Berton, A.; Khan, WS.; Maffulli, N.; Denaro, V. (Sep 2011). "Histopathology of rotator cuff tears.". Sports Med Arthrosc 19 (3): 227-36. doi:10.1097/JSA.0b013e318213bccb. PMID 21822106.
  19. Kuzel, BR.; Grindel, S.; Papandrea, R.; Ziegler, D. (Oct 2013). "Fatty infiltration and rotator cuff atrophy.". J Am Acad Orthop Surg 21 (10): 613-23. doi:10.5435/JAAOS-21-10-613. PMID 24084435.
  20. Gigante, MR.; Martinotti, I.; Cirla, PE.. "[Computer work and De Quervain's tenosynovitis: an evidence based approach].". G Ital Med Lav Ergon 34 (3 Suppl): 116-8. PMID 23405595.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Ilyas, AM.; Ilyas, A.; Ast, M.; Schaffer, AA.; Thoder, J. (Dec 2007). "De quervain tenosynovitis of the wrist.". J Am Acad Orthop Surg 15 (12): 757-64. PMID 18063716.
  22. Declau, F.; van Spaendonck, M.; Timmermans, JP.; Michaels, L.; Liang, J.; Qiu, JP.; van de Heyning, P. (2007). "Prevalence of histologic otosclerosis: an unbiased temporal bone study in Caucasians.". Adv Otorhinolaryngol 65: 6-16. doi:10.1159/000098663. PMID 17245017.
  23. Online 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) 166800
  24. Online 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) 605727
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