Vascular disease

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The article covers vascular disease, i.e. diseases of blood vessels. These keep vascular surgeons and cardiac surgeon busy.

Vasculitides are covered in a separate article called vasculitides.

Normal blood vessels

Comparing arteries and veins:[1]

Feature Artery Vein
Internal elastic lamina (IEL) prominent/thick, usu. complete thin & incomplete
External elastic lamina (EEL) present, thick absent
Shape circular / lumen wide open collapsed
Wall thickness thick thin
Artery and vein. (WC)

Great vessels

When things go wrong here, you see a cardiac surgeon.

Atherosclerosis

General

  • A leading cause of death, esp. in the Western world.
  • May have multi-system manifestations.

Location and associated pathology:

Clinical risk factors:

  • Age.
  • Blood pressure (high) - modifiable (antihypertensives).
  • Cholesterol - modifiable (statins, diet).
  • Diabetes mellitus - modifiable (hypoglycemic medications, diet, lifestyle).
  • Smoking - modifiable (cessation).
  • Family history.

Microscopic

Features:

  • Intimal hyperplasia.
  • Lipid deposition.
  • Foamy macrophages within intima & media.
  • Cholesterol clefts
  • Luminal narrowing.


Notes:

  • Considered "complex" if any of the following are present:[2]
    • Calcifications.
    • Thrombosis.
    • Haemorrhage.

Image

Stains

Aortic dissection

  • Abbreviated AoD.

Cystic medial degeneration

  • AKA cystic medial necrosis.[3]

Medial calcific sclerosis

AKA Moenckeberg medial calcific sclerosis, calcific medial sclerosis of Monckeberg, and Monckeberg's arteriosclerosis.

Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis

General

Note:

  • Hyperplasia = proliferation of cells.

Microscopic

Features:[5]

  • Onion-skin appearance of intima & media due to:
    • Intimal hyperplasia.
    • Smooth muscle hyperplasia.

Image: Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis (utah.edu).

Fibromuscular dysplasia

  • Abbreviated FMD.

General

Etiology:

  • Unknown, possibly genetic.

Gender:

  • Women > men.
  • May be seen in virtually any artery.
  • Reported as a cause of sudden death with involvement of the artery supplying the AV node.[6]

Gross/radiologic

  • Segmental - thinning and thickening.[7]

Classical locations:[7]

Microscopic

Features:[7]

  • Smooth muscle hyperplasia - key feature.
  • Elastic fibre fragmentation.
  • Luminal narrowing.

Images:

Stains

Thromboangiitis obliterans

Thrombosis

See also: Cerebral venous thrombosis.

General

Definition:

  • Blood clot formation within a vessel.

Complications:

Risk factors:

  • The classic pimping question is what "Virchow's triad?"
    • Stasis, hypercoagulability, endothelial injury.
  • A long list is found in: risk factors for VTE.

Gross

See: Pulmonary embolism - gross features.

Microscopic

Features:

  • Lines of Zahn.
  • Fibrin - pink acellular stuff on a H&E stain.

Image

Cholesterol embolism

  • Abbreviated CE.

Coarctation of the aorta

  • AKA aortic coarctation.

General

  • Uncommon.

Classification:

  • Preductal.
  • Postductal.

Associations:

Clinical

Presentation:[10]

  • Heart failure.
  • Hypertension - esp. upper extremity vs. lower extremity.

Gross

  • Narrowing (stenosis) of the aorta proximal or distal to the ductus arteriosis.

Image

Intracranial berry aneurysm

See also

References

  1. URL: http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/corepages/vascular/vascular.htm. Accessed on: 13 January 2011.
  2. Klatt, Edward C. (2006). Robbins and Cotran Atlas of Pathology (1st ed.). Saunders. pp. 4. ISBN 978-1416002741.
  3. URL: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/756835-overview. Accessed on: 12 August 2010.
  4. URL: http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/IMMHTML/IMM028.html. Accessed on: 11 May 2011.
  5. Klatt, Edward C. (2006). Robbins and Cotran Atlas of Pathology (1st ed.). Saunders. pp. 7. ISBN 978-1416002741.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Lee, S.; Chae, J.; Cho, Y. (Dec 2006). "Causes of sudden death related to sexual activity: results of a medicolegal postmortem study from 2001 to 2005.". J Korean Med Sci 21 (6): 995-9. PMID 17179675.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Hata, D. (Sep 2001). "Fibromuscular dysplasia.". Intern Med 40 (9): 978-9. PMID 11579971.
  8. Braverman, AC.; Güven, H.; Beardslee, MA.; Makan, M.; Kates, AM.; Moon, MR. (Sep 2005). "The bicuspid aortic valve.". Curr Probl Cardiol 30 (9): 470-522. doi:10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2005.06.002. PMID 16129122.
  9. Hjerrild, BE.; Mortensen, KH.; Sørensen, KE.; Pedersen, EM.; Andersen, NH.; Lundorf, E.; Hansen, KW.; Hørlyck, A. et al. (2010). "Thoracic aortopathy in Turner syndrome and the influence of bicuspid aortic valves and blood pressure: a CMR study.". J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 12: 12. doi:10.1186/1532-429X-12-12. PMID 20222980.
  10. Peres, A.; Martins, JD.; Paramés, F.; Gil, R.; Matias, C.; Franco, J.; Freitas, I.; Trigo, C. et al. (Jan 2010). "Isolated aortic coarctation: experience in 100 consecutive patients.". Rev Port Cardiol 29 (1): 23-35. PMID 20391897.