Vermiform appendix

From Libre Pathology
Jump to: navigation, search

The vermiform appendix, usually just appendix, is a little thingy that is attached to the cecum. Taking it out is the bread 'n butter of general surgery.

The appendix is a vestigial structure that is thought to have arisen from a larger cecum. Larger cecae are often seen in herbivores and thought to facilitate better digestion of plant matter.[1]

Normal

Normal vermiform appendix

General

Gross

  • Shiny serosal surface.
    • No exudate.
  • Normal diameter.
    • 6.6 +/- 1.5 mm -- based on CT.[2]

Microscopic

Features:

  • +/-Lymphoid hyperplasia - mucosa or submucosa.
  • Normal colorectal-type mucosa.
  • Fatty submucosa.
  • Benign smooth muscle.
  • Serosa.

Negatives:

DDx:

Sign out

VERMIFORM APPENDIX WITHIN NORMAL LIMITS.

Note:

  • This is for a normal appendix within a larger operation. The article negative appendectomy deals with a normal appearing appendix that was removed for presumed appendicitis.

Negative appendectomy

An appendectomy done for presumed acute appendicitis that is pathologically within normal limits

Inflammatory pathologies

Acute appendicitis

Adenovirus appendicitis

Enterobius vermicularis

General

  • May be found in the appendix.
  • The incidence is higher in normal appendices than inflamed ones.[3][4]
  • Clinically mimics appendicitis.[5]

Microscopic

Features:

Image

Granulomatous appendicitis

Inflammatory bowel disease

See Inflammatory bowel disease.

Periappendicitis

General

Definition: inflammation of tissues around the (vermiform) appendix.[6]

  • May be seen in association of appendicitis or alone.
    • With appendicitis it is suggestive of perforation.
    • Without concurrent appendicitis it is suggestive of another abdominal pathology.[7][8]

Microscopic

Features:

  • Acute inflammation of the serosa.

DDx:

Tumours of the appendix

Adenocarcinoma

Mucinous tumours of the appendix

This grouping includes mucinous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma.

Goblet cell carcinoid

Neuroendocrine tumour of the appendix

  • Previously known as appendiceal carcinoid.
  • AKA appendiceal neuroendocrine tumour, abbreviated appendiceal NET.

See also

References

  1. Dawkins, R. (2009). The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution (1st ed.). Free Press. pp. 115. ISBN 978-1416594789.
  2. Charoensak, A.; Pongpornsup, S.; Suthikeeree, W. (Dec 2010). "Wall thickness and outer diameter of the normal appendix in adults using 64 slices multidetector CT.". J Med Assoc Thai 93 (12): 1437-42. PMID 21344807.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Wiebe, BM. (Mar 1991). "Appendicitis and Enterobius vermicularis.". Scand J Gastroenterol 26 (3): 336-8. PMID 1853157.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Dahlstrom, JE.; Macarthur, EB. (Oct 1994). "Enterobius vermicularis: a possible cause of symptoms resembling appendicitis.". Aust N Z J Surg 64 (10): 692-4. PMID 7945067.
  5. Ariyarathenam AV, Nachimuthu S, Tang TY, Courtney ED, Harris SA, Harris AM (2010). "Enterobius vermicularis infestation of the appendix and management at the time of laparoscopic appendectomy: case series and literature review". Int J Surg 8 (6): 466–9. doi:10.1016/j.ijsu.2010.06.007. PMID 20637320.
  6. URL: http://www.medilexicon.com/medicaldictionary.php?t=66889. Accessed on: 1 June 2011.
  7. Fink, AS.; Kosakowski, CA.; Hiatt, JR.; Cochran, AJ. (Jun 1990). "Periappendicitis is a significant clinical finding.". Am J Surg 159 (6): 564-8. PMID 2349982.
  8. O'Neil, MB.; Moore, DB. (Sep 1977). "Periappendicitis: Clinical reality or pathologic curiosity?". Am J Surg 134 (3): 356-7. PMID 900337.