Sudden infant death syndrome

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Sudden infant death syndrome, abbreviated SIDS, is an unexplained rapid (and unexpected) death of a person older than one month and less than one year old, that is not explained after a full autopsy, correlations with the death scene and the (clinical) history.[1][2]

Pathogenesis

It is not understood. One hypothesis for SIDS is: immaturity of the arcuate nucleus of medulla (which control respiratory frequency).[1]

Risk factors

Parent:

  • Low socioeconomic status.
  • Maternal substance use.[2]
  • No prenatal care.[3]
  • Short time between pregnancies.[3]
  • Teenage mother.[3]

Child:[2]

  • Male.[4]
  • Prematurity.
  • Low birth weight.
  • IUGR.
  • Prone sleep, i.e. put to sleep on the front.
  • Soft bed mattress.

Note:

  • Breast feeding reduces the risk.[5]

Diagnosis

  • Diagnosis of exclusions with:[6]

DDx:

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mitchell, Richard; Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Abbas, Abul K.; Aster, Jon (2011). Pocket Companion to Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (8th ed.). Elsevier Saunders. pp. 251. ISBN 978-1416054542.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Athanasakis, E.; Karavasiliadou, S.; Styliadis, I. (Apr 2011). "The factors contributing to the risk of sudden infant death syndrome.". Hippokratia 15 (2): 127-31. PMC 3209674. PMID 22110293. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3209674/.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002533/. Accessed on: 1 May 2012.
  4. Trachtenberg, FL.; Haas, EA.; Kinney, HC.; Stanley, C.; Krous, HF. (Apr 2012). "Risk Factor Changes for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome After Initiation of Back-to-Sleep Campaign.". Pediatrics 129 (4): 630-8. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-1419. PMID 22451703.
  5. Zotter, H.; Pichler, G. (Feb 2012). "Breast feeding is associated with decreased risk of sudden infant death syndrome.". Evid Based Med. doi:10.1136/ebmed-2011-100337. PMID 22345043.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Brion, M.; Allegue, C.; Santori, M.; Gil, R.; Blanco-Verea, A.; Haas, C.; Bartsch, C.; Poster, S. et al. (Feb 2012). "Sarcomeric gene mutations in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).". Forensic Sci Int. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.01.018. PMID 22361390.
  7. Gilbert, NL.; Fell, DB.; Joseph, KS.; Liu, S.; León, JA.; Sauve, R.; Kramer, M.; Shah, P. et al. (Mar 2012). "Temporal trends in sudden infant death syndrome in Canada from 1991 to 2005: contribution of changes in cause of death assignment practices and in maternal and infant characteristics.". Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 26 (2): 124-30. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2011.01248.x. PMID 22324498.