Parathyroid hyperplasia

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Parathyroid hyperplasia
Diagnosis in short

Parathyroid hyperplasia. H&E stain.

LM hypercellular - usu. chief cell predominant, decreased adipose tissue, +/-"water-clear" cells (cells with abundant granular/foamy cytoplasm, mild nuclear pleomorphism)
LM DDx parathyroid adenoma, parathyroid carcinoma
Gross all parathyroid glands are enlarged
Site parathyroid gland

Associated Dx chronic renal failure
Syndromes MEN 1, MEN 2A

Prevalence uncommon
Blood work elevated PTH, +/-elevated calcium
Clin. DDx parathyroid adenoma
Treatment surgical removal of all parathyroid glands & re-implantation of half of one parathyroid in the forearm

Parathyroid hyperplasia is an abnormal proliferation of the parathyroid glands and a relatively common cause of hyperparathyroidism that is typically associated with chronic renal failure.[1]

General

Treatment:

  • Surgical removal of all parathyroid glands & re-implantation of half of one parathyroid in the forearm.

Gross

  • Parathyroid gland enlargement - classically all parathyroid glands are involved; however, some may be spared making it difficult to differentiate this from parathyroid adenoma.[3]

Microscopic

Features:

  • Hyperplastic/hypercellular appearance:
    • Decreased adipose tissue.[4]
    • Increased parenchymal cells.
      • Chief cells - usually predominant.[4]
      • "Water-clear" cells:
      • Other parenchymal cells include: oxyphil cells and transitional oxyphil cells.

Note:

  • Generally, it is impossible to discern between parathyroid adenomas and parathyroid hyperplasias by histology alone.[6]
    • One requires information of the size of the other glands to make the diagnosis.
  • Water-clear cells may be seen in an adenoma.[5]

DDx:

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Clinical history is suggestive

A. Right Superior Parathyroid, Excision:
- Parathyroid tissue compatible with hyperplasia.

B. Right Inferior Parathyroid, Excision:
- Parathyroid tissue compatible with hyperplasia.

C. Portion of Left Inferior Parathyroid, Excision:
- Parathyroid tissue compatible with hyperplasia.

D. Left Superior Parathyroid, Excision:
- Parathyroid tissue compatible with hyperplasia.

See also

References

  1. Jamal, SA.; Miller, PD.. "Secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism.". J Clin Densitom 16 (1): 64-8. doi:10.1016/j.jocd.2012.11.012. PMID 23267748.
  2. URL: http://www.pathconsultddx.com/pathCon/diagnosis?pii=S1559-8675%2806%2970475-2. Accessed on: 29 July 2010.
  3. Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson; Aster, Jon (2009). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease (8th ed.). Elsevier Saunders. pp. 1128. ISBN 978-1416031215.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Yong, JL.; Vrga, L.; Warren, BA. (Apr 1994). "A study of parathyroid hyperplasia in chronic renal failure.". Pathology 26 (2): 99-109. PMID 8090603.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Grenko, RT.; Anderson, KM.; Kauffman, G.; Abt, AB. (Nov 1995). "Water-clear cell adenoma of the parathyroid. A case report with immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.". Arch Pathol Lab Med 119 (11): 1072-4. PMID 7487410.
  6. Taxy, J.; Husain, A; Montag, A. (2009). Biopsy Interpretation: The Frozen Section (1st ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 191. ISBN 978-0781767798.