Cytometry

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Cytometry is the quantification and measurement of cells.

It is typically done in the context of lymphoma via one of two techniques:

  1. Flow cytometry.
  2. Laser scanning cytometry (LSC).

Common markers

  • CD3, CD4, CD8, CD5, CD7.
  • CD19, CD20, FMC7.
  • Kappa, lambda.

Normal

  • T-cells to B-cells usually 1:1.
  • In reactive nodes T-cells predominate.
  • Normal thymic tissue has cells that are positive for both CD4 and CD8.
  • Kappa (k) and lambda (l) are not expressed by the same cell.
  • Rule-of-thumb for normal k:l range is: <6:1 and 1:<3.[1]
    • Lambda dominance is less common.

GS guidelines - non-malignant is:[2]

  • CD19 ~= CD20.
  • CD5 = CD3.
  • CD2 > CD3 and CD5.
  • CD4 + CD8 ~= CD3.
  • CD7 = the smallest number of T-cell.

Abnormal

  • CD4>CD8 predominance classically seen in:
  • T cell lymphoma - loss of one of the T-cell markers (CD2, CD3, CD5 or CD7).
    • CD7 is usually the first to be lost.

Sample report

B-Cell Associated Markers

  • CD10.
  • CD19.
    • B cell marker.
    • Should be ~=CD20.
  • CD20.
    • B cell marker.
    • Should be ~=CD20.
  • CD23.
  • FMC7
    • B cell marker.
  • Kappa+CD19/20+.
    • B cell clonality.
  • Lambda+CD19/20+
    • B cell clonality.

T-Cell Associated Markers

  • CD3.
    • CD3 ~= CD4 + CD8.
    • Usually: CD2 > CD3 > CD7.
  • CD5.
    • Usually: CD2 > CD5 > CD7.
  • CD4.
    • CD3 ~= CD4 + CD8.
  • CD8.
    • CD3 ~= CD4 + CD8.
  • CD7.
    • Usually least prevalent T cell marker; < CD2, < CD3, < CD5.
  • CD2.
    • Usually most prevalent T cell marker; > CD3, > CD5, > CD7.

NK-Cell Associated Markers

Miscellaneous Markers

See also

References

  1. SB. March 10, 2010.
  2. GS. LSC Procedure. March 11, 2010.