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Acute pneumonia. H&E stain. (WC)

Pneumonia is inflammation of the lung, which includes infectious and non-infectious etiologies.

It is a subset of the medical lung diseases. This article primarily deals with the infectious pneumonias.

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are listed at the bottom; they are dealt with in detail in the diffuse lung diseases article.

Infectious pnemonia

Anatomical classification of pneumonia

  • Generally, not used by clinicians.
  • Use of the terms without qualification is discouraged... as they do not make explicit the etiology.


  • Multiple foci of (acute) inflammation involving the bronchi.
  • This is the most common form of (infectious) pneumonia.

Lobar pneumonia

  • Pneumonia that involves a whole lobe.
  • Rarely seen in areas where antibiotic treatments are widely available.

Acute infectious pneumonia

The most common form of pneumonia. It is usually diagnosed clinically.

Chronic infectious pneumonia


Common microorganisms:[1]


  • All of the later ones are granulomatous.



Aspiration pneumonia

Cytomegalovirus pneumonia


  • Immunodeficiency.
  • Critical illness.[2]



  • CMV nuclear changes:
    • Large red nucleus with a pale halo.
  • Eosinophilic granular cytoplasmic inclusions.



  • CMV +ve -- cytoplasmic inclusions, large nucleus.

Diffuse lung diseases

  • AKA idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

Histologic pattern:

See also


  1. Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson; Aster, Jon (2009). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease (8th ed.). Elsevier Saunders. pp. 711. ISBN 978-1416031215.
  2. Limaye, AP.; Boeckh, M. (Nov 2010). "CMV in critically ill patients: pathogen or bystander?". Rev Med Virol 20 (6): 372-9. doi:10.1002/rmv.664. PMID 20931610.
  3. URL: Accessed on: 23 January 2012.