Paraganglioma

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Paraganglioma
Diagnosis in short

Paraganglioma. H&E stain.

LM Zellballen (nests of cells), fibrovascular septae, salt-and-pepper nuclei, +/-hemorrhage (very common)
LM DDx neuroendocrine tumour, pheochromocytoma (paraganglioma of the adrenal gland), gangliocytic paraganglioma
IHC chromogranin +ve, synaptophysin +ve, CD56 +ve
Gross dusky colour
Site abdomen (adrenal gland paraganglioma = pheochromocytoma), head and neck (carotid body tumour)

Syndromes von Hippel Lindau, hereditary paragangliomatosis, neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen disease), MEN 2A, MEN 2B, Carney-Stratakis syndrome, Carney triad

Prevalence uncommon
Prognosis usually good, rarely malignant

Paraganglioma is a rare tumour arising from the paraganglion. A paraganglioma arising in the adrenal gland is known as a pheochromocytoma.

General

  • Definition: tumour of paraganglion.
    • Can be sympathetic or parasympathetic.
    • Locations of paraganglia
      • Paravertebral (retroperitoneal)
      • Near the large blood vessels of the head and neck and base of skull
      • Scattered in other tissues
  • Most common paraganglioma = pheochromocytoma.[1]
    • Sites relate to locations of paraganglia
        • Head & neck most common - neck, ear, carotid body, base of skull
        • Retroperitoneal/abdomen
        • Bladder

Special site names

  • Carotid body tumour = paraganglioma of carotid body - very vascular - right near a major artery. Don't stick a needle in it.
  • Glomus tympanicum tumor = paraganglioma of the middle ear - pulsitile tintinitis and conductive hearing loss.
  • Pheochromocytoma - basically a 'paraganglioma' in the adrenal medulla

Epidemiology

  • Rare.
  • Rarely malignant.

Familial syndromes associated with paragangliomas:[2]

Other associations - not proven to be genetic:

Clinical

  • 10% bilateral, multiple, familial, pediatric and malignant.[5]

Gross

  • Dusky colour.

Note:

Image:

Microscopic

Features:[6]

  • Zellballen - nests of cells - key low power feature.
    • Zellballen is "cell balls" in German.
  • Fibrovascular septae and sustentacular cells (structural support cell).
  • Finely granular cytoplasm (salt-and-pepper nuclei).
  • +/-Hemorrhage - very common.

DDx:

Images

Carotid body tumour:

Duodenal paraganglioma - uncommon location:

Retroperitoneal paraganglioma

Ear paraganglioma "Glomus Tympanicum"

Bladder

Other:

www:

IHC

Features:[7]

  • Chromogranin +ve.
  • Synaptophysin +ve.
  • S100 +ve/-ve (+ve in sustentacular cells, not tumor cells)
  • Cytokeratin -ve.
  • EMA -ve.

EM

Features:[8]

  • Neurosecretory granules.
    • Electron dense core.
    • Typically perinuclear location.

Image:

Sign out

SOFT TISSUE, LEFT/RIGHT CAROTID BODY, EXCISION:
- PARAGANGLIOMA (SIZE IN CM).
- NEGATIVE RESECTION MARGIN.

See also

References

  1. Thompson, Lester D. R. (2006). Endocrine Pathology: A Volume in Foundations in Diagnostic Pathology Series (1st ed.). Churchill Livingstone. pp. 327. ISBN 978-0443066856.
  2. Thompson, Lester D. R. (2006). Endocrine Pathology: A Volume in Foundations in Diagnostic Pathology Series (1st ed.). Churchill Livingstone. pp. 328. ISBN 978-0443066856.
  3. Blay, JY.; Blomqvist, C.; Bonvalot, S.; Boukovinas, I.; Casali, PG.; De Alava, E.; Dei Tos, AP.; Dirksen, U. et al. (Oct 2012). "Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.". Ann Oncol 23 Suppl 7: vii49-55. doi:10.1093/annonc/mds252. PMID 22997454. http://annonc.oxfordjournals.org/content/23/suppl_7/vii49.full.
  4. Lefebvre, M.; Foulkes, WD. (Feb 2014). "Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma syndromes: genetics and management update.". Curr Oncol 21 (1): e8-e17. doi:10.3747/co.21.1579. PMID 24523625.
  5. Thompson, Lester D. R. (2006). Endocrine Pathology: A Volume in Foundations in Diagnostic Pathology Series (1st ed.). Churchill Livingstone. pp. 327. ISBN 978-0443066856.
  6. Thompson, Lester D. R. (2006). Endocrine Pathology: A Volume in Foundations in Diagnostic Pathology Series (1st ed.). Churchill Livingstone. pp. 329-332. ISBN 978-0443066856.
  7. Thompson, Lester D. R. (2006). Endocrine Pathology: A Volume in Foundations in Diagnostic Pathology Series (1st ed.). Churchill Livingstone. pp. 335. ISBN 978-0443066856.
  8. 8.0 8.1 URL: http://path.upmc.edu/cases/case408.html. Accessed on: 16 January 2012.