Hepatorenal syndrome

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Hepatorenal syndrome, abbreviated HRS, is renal failure secondary to severe liver dysfunction.[1]


  • Historically, the kidney was considered a bystander, as histologically it was found to have minimal or no significant changes at autopsy.[2]

See also


  1. Enescu, A.; Petrescu, F.; Mitruţ, P.; Petrescu, IO.; Pădureanu, V.; Enescu, AŞ. (Sep 2016). "Hepatorenal Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment - newsreel.". Rom J Intern Med 54 (3): 143-150. doi:10.1515/rjim-2016-0024. PMID 27658161.
  2. Epstein, M. (Apr 1994). "Hepatorenal syndrome: emerging perspectives of pathophysiology and therapy.". J Am Soc Nephrol 4 (10): 1735-53. PMID 8068872.
  3. Gerbes, AL.. "Liver Cirrhosis and Kidney.". Dig Dis 34 (4): 387-90. doi:10.1159/000444553. PMID 27170393.