Forensic anthropology

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The article deals with forensic anthropology, which is, essentially, examining skeletal remains.

Purpose

  • Look at bones[1] may assist in:
    • Identification - age, sex.
    • Cause of death.

Animal vs. human

  • Size.
  • Shape.

Age

  • Epiphysis not fused to metaphysis = young.
  • Epiphysis fused to metaphysis = old.

Male versus female

Pelvic:[2]

  • Pelvic inlet (superior) - heart-shaped in male, round in female.
  • Pelvic outlet (inferior) - small in male, large in female.
  • Obturator foramen (shape) - round in males, oval in females.
  • Acetabulum (size) - large in males, small in females.
  • Subpubic angle - ~70 degrees in males, 90-100 degrees in females.
  • Sciatic notch (shape) - broad in females, narrow in males.[3]

Mandible:

  • Angle of mandible (shape) - square-ish in male, round in female.[3]

Skull:

  • Supraorbital ridges - more prominent in males.
  • Glabella - more prominent in males.
  • Temporal lines[4] (temporalis muscle attachment) - more prominent in males.

Notes:

  • Anthropologic grouping is not absolute, i.e. it may be wrong.
  • Femoral neck-shaft angles not discriminative.[5]

Additional references

See also

References

  1. Sarvesvaran R, Knight BH (December 1994). "The examination of skeletal remains". Malays J Pathol 16 (2): 117–26. PMID 9053560.
  2. Moore Keith L.; Dalley Arthur F. (1999). Clinically Oriented Anatomy (4th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 336. ISBN 978-0683061413.
  3. 3.0 3.1 URL: http://anthropology.si.edu/writteninbone/comic/activity/pdf/Skeleton_male_or_female.pdf. Accessed on: 8 September 2010.
  4. URL: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray132.png. Accessed on: 9 September 2010.
  5. Anderson JY, Trinkaus E (February 1998). "Patterns of sexual, bilateral and interpopulational variation in human femoral neck-shaft angles". J. Anat. 192 ( Pt 2): 279–85. PMC 1467761. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1467761/.