Apoptosis

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Apoptosis (ballooning degeneration) in the liver. H&E stain. (WC)

Apoptosis is programmed/controlled cell death. It can be physiologic, i.e. normal, or pathologic.

Physiologic apoptosis

Examples:[1]

  • Removal of self reactive lymhocytes.
  • Death of cells at the end of their life:
    • Neurophils.
    • Enterocytes.
  • Embryogenesis.
  • Endometrium - during mentruation.[2]

Pathologic

Microscopic

Features:[4]

  • Apoptotic bodies (membrane bound cell fragments) - key feature.
  • Cell shrinkage.
  • Cytoplasm usu. eosinophilic (pink).
  • Lack of inflammation, i.e. neutrophils.

See also

References

  1. Mitchell, Richard; Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Abbas, Abul K.; Aster, Jon (2011). Pocket Companion to Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (8th ed.). Elsevier Saunders. pp. 13. ISBN 978-1416054542.
  2. Kokawa, K.; Shikone, T.; Nakano, R. (Nov 1996). "Apoptosis in the human uterine endometrium during the menstrual cycle.". J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81 (11): 4144-7. PMID 8923873.
  3. Seidelin, JB.; Nielsen, OH. (2009). "Epithelial apoptosis: cause or consequence of ulcerative colitis?". Scand J Gastroenterol 44 (12): 1429-34. doi:10.3109/00365520903301212. PMID 19958058.
  4. Mitchell, Richard; Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Abbas, Abul K.; Aster, Jon (2011). Pocket Companion to Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (8th ed.). Elsevier Saunders. pp. 4. ISBN 978-1416054542.