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Renal failure, also kidney failure, is dysfunction of the kidneys.
It can be subdivided in a number of different ways.
- Acute kidney injury (abbreviated AKI) - previously acute renal failure (abbreviated ARF).
- Chronic renal failure (CRF).
Acute kidney injury
- Acute tubular necrosis.
- Acute cardiac failure, e.g. myocardial infarction.
- Cholesterol embolism.
- Hepatorenal syndrome.
Chronic renal failure
- Diabetic nephropathy (diabetes mellitus).
- IgA nephropathy.
- Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
- Lupus nephritis (systemic lupus erythematosus).
- Wegener's granulomatosis.
- Chronic cardiac insufficiency (congestive heart failure).
- The cause of end-stage renal disease (like end-stage liver disease) may be difficult to determine.
Renal failure 101:
- Hypotension due to blood loss (e.g. blunt force trauma, sharp force trauma, gunshot wound).
- Reduced cardiac output, e.g. myocardial infarction.
- Renal artery stenosis.
- Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate.
- Obstruction due to abdominal malignancy.
- Posterior urethral valves.