Atrial fibrillation

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Atrial fibrillation is a rapid irregular non-effective contraction of the atria. It is characterized by an irregular pulse. It keeps cardiologists busy.


  • Cardioversion.
  • Anticoagulate.
  • Surgery (Maze procedure).[1][2]


It is due to HITS-A:

  • Hypertension.
  • Ischemia (ischemic heart disease)
  • Thyroid (hyperthyroidism).
  • Stenosis, mitral.
  • Alcohol.


It is ATRIAL FIB:[3]

  1. Alcohol.
  2. Thyroid disease.
  3. Rheumatic heart disease.
  4. Ischemic heart disease.
  5. Atrial myxoma.
  6. Lung causes (pulmonary embolism, emphysema).
  7. Pheochromocytoma.
  8. Idiopathic.
  9. Blood pressure increased (hypertension).

See also


  1. Shen, J.; Bailey, MS.; Damiano, RJ. (Aug 2009). "The surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation.". Heart Rhythm 6 (8 Suppl): S45-50. doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.05.019. PMID 19631907.
  2. Pagé, P.; Gillis, AM.; Skanes, A.; Connolly, S.; Cairns, J.; Cox, J.; Dorian, P.; Healey, J. et al. "Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines 2010: surgical therapy.". Can J Cardiol 27 (1): 67-73. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2010.11.008. PMID 21329864.
  3. URL: Accessed on: 9 June 2011.