Germ layers

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The germ layers give rise to all tissues of the body.

The layers:[1]

  1. Ectoderm.
    • Surface ectoderm.
    • Neuroectoderm.
  2. Endoderm.
  3. Mesoderm.


Gives rise to:

  • Bones.



Gives rise to:[1]

  1. Neural crest.
    • Cranial nerves, sensory nerves.
    • Medulla of adrenal gland.
    • Pigment cells (e.g. melanocytes).
    • Pharyngeal arch & cartilages.
  2. Neural tube.
    • CNS, retina, pineal body, posterior pituitary.

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Moore, Keith L.; Persaud, T.V.N. (2002). The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (7th ed.). Saunders. pp. 83. ISBN 978-0721694122.