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Neuromuscular pathology

1,013 bytes added, 11 October
Inflammation
*Axon = green.
*Myelin = red.
 
Toluidine blue staion:
*Plastic embedded semithin sections (1µm).
 
===Artifacts===
*Myelin splits: stretching.
*Neurokeratin: Formalin fixation (longitudinal: "herringbone", cross section: "wagon-wheels").
*Dark staining myelin: crushing.
*Pale expanding myelin sheets: delayed fixation.
*Uneven myelin staining: osmication problems.
*Shrunken crescentic fascicles: Hyperosmolarity.
===Reactive changes===
File:Onion bulb formation HMSN.jpg | Onion bulbs in HSMN type I.
</gallery>
 
===Regeneration===
*Axon sprouts (regenerating clusters): Three or more closely apposed myelinated axons.
*Thin myelin sheaths.
===Inflammation===
*[[Leprosy]] (Leprous neuropathy).
*[[Sarcoidosis]].
*Neuropathy with macrophage-induced demyelination (CIDP, GBS).
**Guillain–Barré syndrome.
**Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP).<ref>URL: [http://path.upmc.edu/cases/case426.html http://path.upmc.edu/cases/case426.html]. Accessed on: 14 November 2010.</ref>
*CMV neuritis in immuncompromised patients.
*[[Vasculitis]].
*Neuropathy with macrophage-induced demyelination (CIDP, GBS).
 
====Guillain–Barré syndrome====
*Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)
*Preceding infection (RSV, EBV, CMV, HIV, Mycoplasma).
*Monophasic course of motor / sensory deficits.
*Hours to 4 weeks.
*Elevated CSF protein but normal cell count.
*Mononuclear ednoneurial perivascular inflammatory infiltrate (mostly CD4+ve).
*Destructive myelin stripping by macrophages.
*Reduced fiber density.
*Uncompacted myelin / Widely spaced myelin.
 
====Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP)====
*Progredient course longer than 8 weeks.<ref>URL: [http://path.upmc.edu/cases/case426.html http://path.upmc.edu/cases/case426.html]. Accessed on: 14
November 2010.</ref>
 
<gallery>
===Other Diseases===
*Toxic polyneuropathy (drug toxicity).<ref>URL: [http://path.upmc.edu/cases/case173.html http://path.upmc.edu/cases/case173.html]. Accessed on: 8 January 2012.</ref>
*Polyglucosan body disease.
===Neoplasms===
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