Succinate dehydrogenase

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Succinate dehydrogenase, abbreviated SDH, is an enzyme complex in the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain. It is localized to the mitochondria.

SDH immunostain in a muscle biopsy with denervation atrophy.


  • It is used to look for mitochondrial disease.
  • Loss of staining is pathologic.

Associated pathology

Mutations in SDH genes are associated with:

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Vicha, A.; Taieb, D.; Pacak, K. (Jun 2014). "Current views on cell metabolism in SDHx-related pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.". Endocr Relat Cancer 21 (3): R261-77. doi:10.1530/ERC-13-0398. PMID 24500761.
  2. Ricketts, CJ.; Shuch, B.; Vocke, CD.; Metwalli, AR.; Bratslavsky, G.; Middelton, L.; Yang, Y.; Wei, MH. et al. (Dec 2012). "Succinate dehydrogenase kidney cancer: an aggressive example of the Warburg effect in cancer.". J Urol 188 (6): 2063-71. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2012.08.030. PMID 23083876.