Congenital heart disease
Congenital heart disease is a niche area of a niche area.
- 1 Ventricular septal defect
- 2 Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
- 3 Atrial septal defect
- 4 Left hypoplastic heart syndrome
- 5 Transposition of great vessels
- 6 Splenic abnormalities
- 7 Eisenmenger syndrome
- 8 Cor pulmonale
- 9 See also
- 10 References
Ventricular septal defect
- Most common congenital heart defect.
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
- Most common cause of a blue baby.
- Abnormal septation of the truncus arteriosus.
- Right ventricular hypertrophy,
- Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction,
- overriding aorta,
- VSD (ventricular septal defect).
- Overriding aorta = aorta has a biventricular connection --takes blood from the right ventricle.
- Tight ventricular outflow tract obstruction is usually subpulmonic stenosis.
Atrial septal defect
- May be seen in adults.
- Fixed S2 split.
- Ostium secundum (most common) - between SVC and IVC.
- Ostium primum - between SVC and IVC closer to RV.
- Upper sinus venosus defect - at SVC.
- Lower sinus venosus defect - at IVC.
- Coronary sinus defect.
The ostium secundum are the most common and usually found in isolation, i.e. there are not other associated abnormalities.
Left hypoplastic heart syndrome
- Physiologically inadequate left ventricle.
- Atrial septal defect (ASD) -- left-to-right shunt.
- Mitral stenosis.
- Left ventricular hypoplasia.
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Transposition of great vessels
- Aorta and pulmonary trunk hooked-up to the wrong ventricle.
- Survivable after birth only if there is a functional shunt, e.g. (persistent) patent ductus arteriosus and/or atrial septal defect.
- When the ductus arteriosus closes they are in trouble.
Asplenia is associated with cardiac abnormalities:
- Aspenia = Boys, Bad congenital malformations (transposition of great vessels, pulmonary atresia/stenosis, totally anomalous pulmonary return).
- Interesting is that these are all right-to-left shunts.
For completeness... polyspenia associations:
- Polyspenia = Girls, Good prognosis, Gastrointestinal situs inversus.
- Pulmonary arterial hypertension with a
- Right-to-left shunt (that was initially left-to-right), and
Note: Eisenmenger syndrome, by definition in some sources, is (only) due to a VSD.
- ASD - rarely causes Eisenmenger syndrome.
- Extra-cardiac shunt.
- End-stage disease often characterized by fibrinoid necrosis of small pulmonary arterial vessels (arterioles & small arteries).
Pulmonary hypertension due to heart disease.
Pressure - definition:
- Mean pulm. arterial pressure >25 mmHg at rest.
- Robbins p.568.
- Moore. TDH. P.361
- Rose V, Izukawa T, Moes CA (August 1975). "Syndromes of asplenia and polysplenia. A review of cardiac and non-cardiac malformations in 60 cases withspecial reference to diagnosis and prognosis". Br Heart J 37 (8): 840-52. PMC 482884. PMID 1191445. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/pagerender.fcgi?artid=482884&pageindex=1#page.
- Jensen AS, Iversen K, Vejlstrup NG, Hansen PB, Sondergaard L (April 2009). "[Eisenmenger syndrome]" (in Danish). Ugeskr. Laeg. 171 (15): 1270-5. PMID 19416617.
- Daliento L, Rebellato L, Angelini A, et al. (2002). "Fatal outcome in Eisenmenger syndrome". Cardiovasc. Pathol. 11 (4): 221-8. PMID 12140128.